Scientific Facts About Ozone Use in Hot Tubs

What is Ozone?


• Ozone is “active oxygen”, nature’s special element. Each ozone molecule consists of three oxygen atoms.
• Ozone is a natural purifier.
• Ozone is created in nature by the combination of oxygen in air and the ultraviolet rays of the sun or by the corona discharge during a lightning storm.
• Ozone has a clean, fresh scent noticed after a rainstorm.
• Ozone is the most powerful oxidizer safely used.
• Ozone is the alternative water purifier to traditional chemicals such as chlorine and bromine.

What Does Ozone Do?

• The Ozone layer in the atmosphere protects the earth from deadly radiation.
• Ozone destroys bacteria, viruses, mold and mildew.
• Ozone eliminates spores, cysts, yeast and fungus.
• Ozone oxidizes iron, sulfur, manganese and hydrogen sulfate.
• Ozone eliminates oils and other contaminants in water.
• Ozone eliminates odors in air, such as smoke.
• Ozone keeps water clean and sparkling clear.
• Ozone keeps water fresh.

Ozone is Healthy

• Ozone leaves no chemical by-products in water.
• Ozone leaves no chemical taste or smell.
• Ozone will not burn eyes or make them red or irritated. Ozone will not irritate or dry out skin, nose, or ears.
• Ozone will not leave a chemical film on material or skin.
• Ozone will not discolor or damage hair or clothing.
• Ozone adds no contaminants or by-products to water. Ozone rids water and air of unhealthy microorganisms.
• Ozone is NOT a carcinogen.

Where is Ozone Used?

• Nice, France built the first water purification plant to use ozone in 1906
• Los Angeles has the largest ozone drinking water treatment plant in the world.
• Most bottled water is purified by ozone.
• Ozone is used to clean waste water and toxic waste.
• Ozone purifies water in wells and home drinking water systems.
• Ozone systems have brought life back to “dead” contaminated lakes and pools.
• Ozone is used to purify air in hotel rooms, boats, RVs, cars and smoke/fire damaged structures.
• Ozone is used in thousands of residential and commercial pools, hot tubs and spas all over the world.

How is Ozone Made?


Ozone Is Safe for the Environment as well as Spa & Pool Equipment

• Ozone will not explode.
• Ozone is not a fire hazard.
• In the dose required for excellent purification, ozone does not produce harmful fumes.
• Ozone will not damage plumbing fittings or pipes.

Ozone Is Convenient for Hot Tubs, Spas & Pools

• Ozone does not have to be purchased or stored. Ozone is generated “on site” and is introduced into the water or air automatically.
• Ozone does not affect the pH balance of water, thus minimizing pH adjustments.
• Ozone helps reduce total dissolved solids in water so that the water does not have to be changed as often.
• Ozone eliminates much of the routine maintenance because it does such an effective job keeping the water clean.

Information About Chloramines

When any type of chlorine is added to water, it usually forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the most powerful killing form of chlorine in water, and hypochlorite ion (OCl-), a relatively weak form of chlorine in water.

The percentage of HOCl and OCl- is determined by the pH of the water. As the pH goes up, less of the chlorine is in the killing form and more of the chlorine is in the weaker form. The total of HOCl and OCl- is the free available chlorine.

Chlorine can combine with ammonia and nitrogen compounds in the water to form chloramines, sometimes called combined chlorine. By combining with ammonia and nitrogen, free chlorine in the water is disabled.

Chloramines are 60 to 80 times less effective than free chlorine. Chloramines are formed any time ammonia and nitrogen are in the water. Some of the ammonia and nitrogen compounds are introduced into the water by swimmers and bathers in the form of perspiration, urine, saliva, sputum and fecal matter.

An active swimmer sweats one pint per hour. The average person sweats three pints per hour in a heated spa. Ammonia and nitrogen compounds are also introduced into the water by rain. Each drop of rain has some dissolved nitrogen from our atmosphere and from automobile emissions.

Chloramines smell bad. This is the smell most often associated with pools and spas in health clubs and YMCAs. Chloramines are eye and skin irritants, and they cloud the water.

Chloramines can be removed from the water by the following three methods:

1. Chlorine Shock Treatment or Super-Chlorination: By adding a mega-dose of chlorine. Usually 3 to 6 times more chlorine than a normal dose is added to the water, or the level of chlorine is raised to 5 to 10 ppm and held there for 4 hours.

This is called super chlorination. To remove chloramines, the ratio of chlorine to ammonia must be at least 7.6 to 1. If this ratio is not obtained, then more chloramines will be produced. Swimmers and bathers should not enter the water until the level of chlorine has dropped to 3 ppm or less.

2. Non-Chlorine Shock Treatment: By adding a non-chlorine shock to the water. The most common chemical used for this is potassium peroxymonosulfate.

3. Adding Ozone to the Water: If an ozone generator is installed on a pool or spa, then oxidation of the ammonia and nitrogen compounds will take place whenever the ozone system is operating. The longer the system operates, the more the ozone can destroy the ammonia and nitrogen.

Ozone oxidizes soap, deodorant, hair spray, cologne, makeup, perfume, body lotion, hand cream, sun tan lotion, saliva and urine. In addition, ozone kills all pathogenic bacteria, germs and viruses.

Ozone takes care of the big job of oxidizing all these organic contaminants. Ozone frees up the combined chlorine, thus leaving the chlorine free to provide a residual. Ozone ultimately enhances the performance of chlorine and bromine.

Less chlorine or bromine will be needed to maintain a residual. Commonly, ozone reduces chlorine or bromine use by 60-90 percent. The quality of water will be dramatically better with the combination of ozone and chlorine or the combination of ozone and bromine than with chlorine or bromine alone.